The Great Battle of Badr took place on the seventeenth of Ramadan, two years after the Hijra. This was the first battle that the believers ever engaged in with the disbelievers, and it is, by far, the most famous and most renown, becuase of the several extraordinary events that occured during it.
Rasoolullah (saws) had encouraged the Muslims to oppose the Quraish caravan which was returning to Mecca from Sham. The Muslims went out with 300 and some soldiers not intending to meet a caravan of about 40 men, not intending to fight but only to overpower them. The caravan escaped, but Abu Sufyan had already sent word to Quraish to come and protect it.
The Quraish marched with enormous army of 1000 men, six hundred wearing shields, 100 horses, and 700 camels, and luxurious provisions to last for several days. The disbelievers wanted to make this a victory that would put fear into the hearts of all the Arabs. They wanted to crush the Muslims once and for all and the odds were overwhelmingly in their favor.
Imagine that the believers with their small army (including only 2 horses), going out with the intent of meeting a mere 40 unarmed man and instead meeting a well- prepared army of *3 times* their size…. Rasoolullah (saws) could have easily ordered the believers to fight and they wouldn’t have hesitated to comply, but, he (saws) wanted to emphasize to his followers that they should fight out of conviction and iman and to teach us a lesson in the process.
He gathered his followers to conduct shura (consultation). Many of the muhajireen ( the Muslims who emigrated from Mecca to Medinah) spoke up, using the most eloquent of words to describe their dedication. But there was one of the sahabah whom all the others envied for his statement to Rasoolullah (saws).
He, Miqdad ibn al Aswad, rose up in front of the crowd and said, ‘Ya Rasoolullah! We will not say to you like Bani Israel said to Musa, ‘Go you and your Lord and fight, we are here sitting (waiting).’ (surat al maa’idah). Go by Allah’s blessing and we are with you!”
And so Rasoolullah (saws) was very pleased, but in his greeat wisdom, he waited silently, and some among the Muslims knew what he intended. So far only the muhajiroon had given their consent, but it was the Ansar (the Muslims who lived in Medinah and welcomed the Muslims into their city) who had the most to loose in this stake and it was not a part of the pledge (that Rasoolullah had taken from the Ansar at ‘Aqabah) for the Ansar to fight with the Muslims in foreign territory.
So, the great leader of the Ansar, Sa’d ibn Mu’adh spoke up, “Ya Rasoolullah! Maybe you mean us.” Rasoolullah (saws) responded in the affirmative. Sa’d proceeded to give a beautiful speech in which he said, among many things: “O Messenger of Allah, we have believed in you and we believe that you are saying the truth. We give you, based on that, our covenant to listen to and obey you…..By Allah, the One Who sent you with the truth, if you were to enter the sea, we would rush into it with you and not one of us would stay behind…May Allah show you in our actions what will satisfy your eyes. So march with us, putting our trust in Allah’s blessings.”
Rasoolullah (saws) was very pleased by this and said, “Forward and be of cheer, for Allah has promised me one of the two (the caravan or the battle), and by Allah, it is as if I now saw the enemy lying prostrate.”
The Muslims marched forward and encamped at the nearest spring of Badr (closest to Medinah, which is north of Mecca). One of the companions, Al-Hubab ibn Mundhir, asked Rasoolullah (saws), “ Has Allah inspired you to choose this very spot or is it stratagem of war and the product of consultation?” Rasoolullah (saws) said, “It is the product of stratagem of war and consultation.” So Al-Hubab suggested that the Muslims encamp further south on the nearest water well, make a basin of water for themselves, and destroy the other wells to thereby restrict to Quraish’s access to the water. Rasoolullah (saws) approved of his plan and carried it out.[*]
Then, Sa’d ibn Mu’adh suggested that a trellis or hut be built for Rasoolullah (saws) as a protection for him and to serve as a headquarters for the army. Rasoolullah (saws) and Abu Bakr stayed in the hut while Sa’d ibn Mu’adh and a group of his men guarded it. Rasoolullah (saws) spent the whole nigh preceeding the battle in prayer and supplication evn thought he (saws) knew that Allah (swt) had promised him victory. It was out of his (saws) love for and worship and submission to Allah (swt) that he did this.
And it was said that this is the highest form of ‘ibadah knowns as “‘ain al yaqeen”, a state of being completely dependant and submissive to Allah (swt), which distinguished him (in superiority) from Abu Bakr As siddiq (ra) who only had “ ‘ilm al yaqeen”, the certainty of the promise. Unusally, that same night, the night when tensions were mounting for one of the biggest events in history, the night before the battle that would signify the progress or defeat of Islam, instead of being nervous, worried and unable to sleep, the Muslim army enjoyed a sound and refreshing sleep.
That night was the night of the 17th of Ramadan, the year 2 A.H. This was a Divine favor which Allah (swt) mentioned in the Quran: “(Remember) when He covered you with a slumber as a security from Him, and He caused rain to descend on you from the sky, to clean you thereby and to remove from you the Rijz (whispering, evil suggestions, etc.) of Satan, and to strengthen your hearts, and make your feet firm thereby.” [8:11]
The seond favor from Allah (swt) mentioned in this verse is the rain that Allah (swt) sent upon the believers that very night. The place where the Muslims were to encamp was made of sandy ground which was hard to walk on becuase one’s feet could easily sink in it. Allah (swt) sent the rain to make the ground firm under their feet and sent the sleep to make their hearts firm. The next morning,
Rasoolullah (saw) was still asleep when Quraish was very closely approaching. Abu Bakr (ra) was very hesitant to wake the noble Messenger (saws), but was forced to do so becuase Quraish were approahcing quickly.
The Muslims were arranged in ranks. When the two parties appoached closer and were visible to each other, Rasoolullah (saws) began supplicating, “O Allah! The conceited and haughty Quraishites are already here and defying You and and belying Your Messenger. O Allah! I m waiting for Your victory which You have promised me. I beseech You Allah to defeat them.”
He (saws) then gave strict orders that his men would not start fighting until he gave them his final word. He recommended that they use their arrows sparingly  and never resort to swords unless the enemies came too close.  The Quraish were haught and arrogant and confident in their superior number, weapons, and provisions but it is Allah (swt) who would decide the matter: “(O disbelievers) if you ask for a judgement, now has the judgement come unto you and if you cease (to do wrong) , it will be better for you, and If you return (to the attack), so shall we return, and your forces will be of no avail to you, however numerous it be, and verily, Allah is with the believers.” [8:19] The battle began with a confronation between three men from each side:
— Hamza (Rasoolullah’s uncle)vs.‘Utbah ibn Rabi’a
— Ali (Rasoolullah’s cousin)vs.Al-Waleed ibn ‘Utbah
— ‘Ubaidah ibn al Harith vs. Shaybah ibn Rabi’a
In the former two cases, Hamza and Ali killed their opponents, but ‘Ubaidah (despite killing his opponent) was severely wounded and died about four or five days later. The fighting intensified, and many more duels broke out. In the midst of all of this, Rasoolullah (saws) continued to supplicate his Lord. He (saws) said, “O Allah! Should this group (of Muslims) be defeated today, You will no longer be worshipped.”Abu Bakr witnessed this incessant supplication so He said to Rasoolullah (saws), “O Rasoolullah, you have cried out enough to your Lord. He will surely fulfill what He has promised you.”
Immediate was the response of Allah (swt), Who sent down angels from the heavens for the help and assistance of Rasoolullah (saw) and his companions. The Quran marks this miraculous occurance: “I will help you with a thousand of the angels each behind the other (following one another) in succession.” Quran [8:9] Rasoolullah (saws), in his hut, dozed off a little and then raised his head joyfully crying and said, “O Abu Bakr! glad tidings are there for you. Allah’s victory has approached. By Allah, I can see Jibreel on his mare in the thick of a sandstorm.” Then he came out of the hut and exclaimed: “sayuhzamul jam’u wa yuwwalloonad-dubur” Quran [54:45] (Their multitude will be put to flight, and they will show their backs.) This is in fact one of the miracles of the Quran becuase this verse was revealed in Mecca before any of these events at Badr had taken place.
Omar (ra), upon hearing Rasoolullah (saws) proclaim this verse on this occasion said, “When this verse was first revealed, I asked Rasoolullah what it means. What multitude? What deafeat? And Rasoolullah (saws) didn’t answer me. But when I saw him recite it on that occasion, I then understood.” Then Rasoolullah (saws) took a handful of dust and cast it at the enemy and said : Confusion seize their faces!” As he flung the dust, a violent sandstorm blew like furnace blast into the eyes of the enemy. About this, Allah says: “And you (i.e. Muhammad -saws) threw not when you did throw, but Allah threw.” [8:17] It was at this point that Rasoolullah (saws) gave orders to launch a full counter-attack.
He incited the believers reciting the following verse: “And be quick for forgiveness from your Lord, and for Paradise as wide as are the heavens and earth.” [3:133] The spirit of the Muslims was at it peak and they fought with the untmost courage and bravery severly wounding the Quraish army, killing many of their men and instilling fear in their hearts. The Muslims did not know that Allah’s help was about to descend upon them.
They only knew the odds that were apparent to both sides: 100 against 300, 700 camels against 70 camels, 100 horses against 2, enourmous provisions against none, an intent and preparation for war against an unprepared group of believers. Still, despite all odds, they had trust in Allah (swt) and His Messenger and they were willing and even hoping to give their lives of this dunya for the ever-lasting abode of Jannah. Because of their devotion Allah (swt) sent His help and victory.
In addition to sending down angels, Allah (swt) also brought another miraculous occurence to ensure the Muslim victory. Allah says: ““(And remember) When Allah showed them to you (Muhammad) as few in your dream, if He had shown them to you as many, you would have surely have disputed in making a decision. But Allah saved (you). Certainly, He is the AllKnower of what is in the breasts.’” [8:43]
And indeed, Allah (swt) did fulfill His promise: “And (remember) when you met (the army of the disbelievers on the Day of the battle of Badr), He showed them to you as few in your eyes and He made you appear as few in their eyes, so that Allah might accomplish a matter already ordained (in His Knowledge), and to Allah return all matters (for decision).” [8:44] Many of the disbelievers were killed in this battle, the most noteworthy of which was Abu Jahl, the archenemy of Islam.
When Rasoolullah (saws) set out to look at his corpse, he (saws) said, ““This is the Pharaoh of this nation.”” And so the Muslims defeated the disbelievers in a humiliating defeat by the Help of Allah (swt). Indeed Allah, again, fulfilled His promise, ““Their multitude will be put to flight, and they will show their backs”” [54:45] The disbelievers, with all their might, turned their backs and ran away from the Muslims in disgrace and utter humiliation.
Allahu Akbar wa lillah al Hamd.