THE FIRST PHASE: INDIAN NATIONALIST
“Saare Jahan se Aachha/ Hindusthan Hamara“
The first phase of Iqbal was as an Indian nationalist. He believed that both the Hindus and the Muslims could live together to return the subcontinent of India to its pre-British Moghul glory. This belief was made under the hypothesis that the two-century British period was an aberration in the thousand year history of South Asia. Iqbal believed that after the British left, South Asians (‘Indians’) could live together in peace and harmony and make the country great again. In the Forties, the Muslims made up about 40% of the population of South Asia (‘India’) and Hindus were in slight majority. However the cultural and social centers of South Asia were in the hands of the Muslims. During this phase of his life Iqbal believed that South Asia is as big as Western Europe could compete as a great nation against Europe, America and China. Jinnah at the time also experimented with unity and was called “The ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity “.
Here is Iqbal clearly disassociating himself from the scheme of Pakistan though he still defends his Allahbad speech made four years earlier
Dr. Sir Mohd. Iqbal Kt. M. A., Ph.D. Barrister-at-Law, Lahore
4th March 1934 My dear Mr. Thompson
I have just received your review of my book. It is excellent and I am grateful to you for the very kind things you have said of me. But youhave made one mistake which I hasten to point out as I consider itrather serious. You call me [a] protagonist of the scheme called‘ Pakistan’. Now Pakistan is not my scheme. The one that I suggestedin my address is the creation of a Muslims Province–i.e. a province having an overwhelming population of Muslims–in the North west of India. This province will be, according to my scheme,a part of the proposed Indian Federation.
Pakistan scheme proposes a separate federation of Muslim Provinces directly related to England as a separate dominion. This scheme originated in Cambridge. The authors of this scheme believe that we Muslim Round Tablers have sacrificed the Muslim nation on the altar of Hindu orso called Indian Nationalism
SECOND PHASE OF IQBAL: PAN ISLAMISM
2) CHEEN – O ARAB HUMARA, HINDUSTAAN HUMARA, MUSLIM HAIN HUM, WATAN HAI SARA JAHAN HUMARA
Disappointed by the Hindu attitudes, Iqbal began to think himself as a Muslim first, and an ‘Indian’ second. During this stage of his thinking, Alama Iqbal began believing in Pan-Islamism. Iqbal worked with Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali and Abul Kalaam Azad. He actively wrote poems on his belief that all Muslims should think of themselves as Muslims first. Caste and Creed were to be given up, and nationalism was shunned for the crescent and star.
Cheen-o-Arab hamara, Hindustan hamara
Muslim main hum, watan hai sara jahan hamara
Tauheed ki amanat senon main hai hamarey
Asan nahin mitana naam-o-nishaan hamara
Duniya kay bu’t kadon main, wo pehla ghar Khuda ka
Hum uss kay pasban hain, wo pasban hamara
Baatil say dabney waley, aey Asman! nahin hum
Sou baar ker chuka hai Tu imtihan hamara
Salar-e-Karwan hai Meer-e-Hijaaz (PBUH) apna
Iss naam say hai baaqi, aaram-e-jahan hamara
Iqbal ka tarana baang-e-dara hai goya
Hota hai jada paima, phir karwan hamara
(Meanings: Cheen-o-Arab = China and Arabia; Hindustan = India; watan = homeland; jahan = world; Tauheed ki amanat = Islam; Senon = Insight; asan = easy; mitana = eliminate; naam-o-nishan = survival; bu’t kadon = idol temples; pehla ghar Khuda ka = Referring to Khana Kaaba; pasban = Protector; Baatil = Oppression; Dabney waley = Oppressed; Asman = Nature; Salar-e-Karwan = Leader of Caravan; Meer-e-Hijaaz (PBUH) = Muhammad (PBUH); Aaram-e-jahan = satisfaction; Tarana = Anthem; bang-e-dara = Voice of bell; jada paima = reactivate)
THE CONCEPT OF KHUDI (self)
Iqbal wrote on the concept of self.
” Khoodi ko kur bulund itna kai khuda bundai say khood poochay, buta teri ruzaa kiya hai “.
This concept of self asked the Muslims to improve their lot by themselves, and not be at the mercy of any other person or nationality.
THIRD PHASE OF IQBAL:PAKISTANI SEPARATISM
3) KHANJAR HILAL KA HAI QAUMI NITAAN HAMARAH
توشاھیں ھے بسيرا کر پھاڑوں کي چٹانوںپر
پلٹنا چھپٹنا چھپٹ کے پلٹنا
لھو گرمانے کا ھے بھانا
“Tu shaaheen hai, basaira kar pharaon kee chatanon pur”..
“Jhapatna palatna, palat kar jhapatna;
Lahu garm rakhne ka hai ik bahana”…..Alama Iqbal
This is the third and final stage of Iqbal’s’ thinking patterns. Influenced by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan writings, Iqbal changed his thinking. During this phase of his life, Iqbal worked for the All India Muslim League, whose sole purpose was the creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims of the Subcontinent
Of his different phases Iqbal himself wrote:
” I have myself been of he view hat religious differences should disappear from this country, and even now act on the principle, in my private life. But now I think that the preservation of their national identities is desirable for both the Hindus and the Muslims. The vision of a common nationhood for India is a beautiful idea, and has a poetic appeal, but looking to the present conditions and the unconscious trends of the two communities, appears incapable of fulfillment”.
By the year 1941 He was indeed a firm believer in Pakistan and the Two Nation Theory
” Cant you see that a Muslim, when he was converted more than a thousand years ago, bulk of them, then according to your hindureligion and philosophy, he becomes an outcast and he becomes aMalecha (an untouchable) and the Hindus ceased to have anythingto do with him socially , religiously , culturaly or in any otherway? He, therefore belongs to a different order not merely religiousbut social and he has lived in that distinctly separate and antagonostic social order, religiously, socially and culturally…can you posibally compare this with that nonsensical talk thatmere change of faith is no ground for a demand for Pakistan? Cantyou see the fundamantle difference ? “ 2 march 1941. Pres. address toPunjab Muslim Students Fed.
As can be seen from the above that the entire Muslim nation of India did not actually believe in “Pakistan” untill after the failure of the Cabinet Mission Plan. It was after the failure of the CMP that Quaid-e-Azam and the Muslim League had accepted that the MOVEMENT TOWARDS Pakistan or an independent Muslim state began. Earlier writings from Iqbal DO NOT DETRACT anything from Iqbal becasue as early as 1930 he WAS propogating a SEPERATE identity of the Muslims of India.Iqbal’s vs Goethe’s: Deja Vu in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan
Nikal kay sehra say jis nay Roma ki saltanat ko ulat diya tha
Suna hai qudsiyon say main nay, wo sher phir hoshyar ho ga
Khuda kay bandey tou hain hazaron, banon main phirtey hain marey marey
Main uss ka banda banon ga jis ko Khuda kay bandon say pyar ho ga
(Meanings: saltanat = State; ulat = to conquer; Qudsiyon = fortune tellers; sher = lion (referring to Sultan Salah ud Din Ayubi and other brave Muslims); hoshyar = Attention; banon = forests)