By Riaz Ahmed Siddiqui
Hajj is performed from 8th to 12th of Zilhijjah (12th month of the Muslim calendar) and not on any other day, while the other type Umrah can be performed at any time and in any month Excepting The Five Days of Haj.
The formalities and directives relating to Haj come into force with the pronouncement of “TALBIAH”, and putting on IHRAAM, offering “two Raka’at” of Ihram prayers and then vowing intent (Niyyat) for Haj.
There are three kinds of Haj according to one’s Niyyat namely Haj only, Umrah as well as Haj with the same Ihraam and then taking off Ihram followed by Haj with another Ihraam. One can choose from the three which are respectively known as IFFRAAD, QIRAAN and TAMATOO. In the case of the first two, the pilgrim continues to wear Ihraam till the completion of Haj. In case of Tamatto he can take off Ihram after performing Umrah and puts it on again on the first day of Haj i.e. the 8th Zilhijjah.
HOW TO PUT IHRAM:– One should first bath. Ablution (Wazoo) is enough provided bath is not due. Before taking bath it is Sunnah to PRUNE THE NAILS, TRIM THE MOUSTACHE, REMOVE HAIR AND TO HAVE A HAIR CUT, according to one’s normal practice.
Ihraam comprises of two sheets of UNSEWN cloth – one used as the waist cloth and the other for covering the vest (upper) part of the body. It is sunnah to offer two Rakaat prayers after putting on Ihraam. At the time of offering prayers, the head should be covered with the upper sheet of cloth because Ihraam directives. Which require keeping the head UNCOVERED are not applicable at this stage.
After offering Ihraam payers one has to express his/her intention for Haj by uttering TALBIAH.
TALBIAH read as following
LAB-BAIK, ALLAH-HUMMA LAB-BAIK, LAB-BAIK LA SHAREKA LA-KA LAB-BAIK.
IN-NAL HAMDA WAN NI-MATA, LA-KA WAL-MULK LAA SHAREEK-A-LAK”
Translation:- Here I am, O God, here. I am at YOUR SERVICE, here I am! You have no partner, here I am at your service, verily to you belong all praise and benevolence and the sovereignty. You have no partner.
Restriction of Ihram for Males: – Putting on knitted garments on the pattern of common dress, to voer the head or the face, all kinds of gestures pointing to sex are forbidden.
Other restrictions pertain to the use of perfume, cutting of hair, pruning of nails, cutting of trees or even plucking the blade or leaves of gross, hunting, quarreling, hunting or helping the hunter destroying vermin (insect) or killing of locusts.
Restriction for females: – It is forbidden to cover the face, A viel can be put BUT IT SHOULD NOT TOUCH THE FACE. Female should remain in their usual stitched clothes and KEEP THEIR HEADS COVERED. They are permitted to wear gloves and socks. They can make Niyyat for Ihraam during the period (mensuration) but offering two Rakaat prayers is STRICTLY PROHIBITED for women. All other bindings except male centric are equally applicable to female.
A woman can not repeat CANNOT proceed for Haj without “Muhram”.
If a woman has period during Haj days, she should comply with the regulations of Haj other than Tawwaf of holy kaa’ba. Twafe Izzafa should be performed after attaining ritual purification. If she has time for four roundings Tawaaf before commencement of the period, she should perform such Tawaaf.
ON ENTERING MAKKAH: – The first religious duty of one who enters Makkah from outside the precincts is TO GO TO MASJID UL HARRAM and perform Tawaaf i.e. going round the holy Kaaba. After Tawaaf, two Rakaat prayer pertaining to Tawaf are WAJIB. It is Sunnah to offer the two Rakaat near The STATION OF ABRAHIM (مقام ابراہیم). But nowadays during the milling crowds performing Tawwaaf one should try to be as near to STATION OF ABRAHIM as possible.
iii. After Zam-Zam SA’EE is performed i.e. walking briskly (not running) between the hillocks of SAFA & MARWA. (The literary meaning of Sa’ee is attempting or trying) but here it is meant to run seven times (7 times) between Safa & Marwa in the prescribed manner. This making round (7 times) is in emulation of the particular movements of Hajar, the mother of prophet Ismail in search of water. Saa’ee is an essential duty of Haj as well as Umrah.
THE FIRST DAY OF HAJ:– On the afternoon of 8th ZilHijja, the pilgrims have to proceed to MINA in Ihram so as to reach there before Zuhar prayers.
THE SECOND DAY:– On the 9th ZilHijja, the pilgrims have to perform The most important and “fundamental duty” of Haj, without which there can be No Haj.
After sunrise Hajis have to set out from Mina to Arafat and stay there until sunset, engaged in profound prayers and utmost devotation. Combine Zuhar prayers with advanced Asr prayers under the Imam in the mosque or in the surroundings of Masjid-e-NUMAIRAH and deferred Magrib prayers combining with Isha. Haj is also called “Arafa symbolically.
THE THIRD DAY:– Very very busy day, pilgrims have to perform several Wajibaat and FARAIZ of Haj. That is why they are exempted from offering Eid Al Adha prayers on the 10th ZilHijjah.
The first wajib is the WAQOOF (STAY) in MUZDALFA, the duration of which is from sunset of the proceeding day until a little before rising of the sun. A short while before sunrise, is just sufficient to offer Fajr prayers (Two Rakaats) and post prayer supplication, one has to proceed to Mina from Muzdalfa. This is second WAJIB.
RAMI AT JAMARAT AL AQBA:- In the Third Wajib which should be performed before MIDDAY. The pilgrims have to perform Rami by throwing seven (7) pebbles, one at a time, at Jamara-tul Aqba only. This procedure is in memory of The Prophet Abrahim’s praiseworthy will and firm resolution to carry on Allah’s command to sacrifice his son Ismail, despite Satan’s persuation and obstruction to mislead him AT THREE DIFFERENT places. Abraham repulsed Satan by THROWING PEBLES at him every time, hence the action is replayed.
Sacrifice of an animal is the FORTH WAJIB after being free from RAMI, in the same state i.e. without having their heads shaved until they comply the wajib of sacrificing the animal. This procedure used to be quite cumbersome in the past but now has been made easy courtesy the Saudi Govt. who arranges this feet.
HALQ or OASR is the FIFTH WAJIB whereby one has to have one’s head shaved or to have atleast one-fourth of it cut. However it is not compulsory to do so on the 10th itself and can be done any day upto 12th Zilhijjah. One continues under the restriction of Ahraam for such length of time as one does not have the head shaved or have a hair cut on the 10th Zilhijja. Ten only he/she is relieved of the restriction of Ahraam. Then one can were stitched/normal clothings and prune nails and other previously banned activities are restored excepting those pointed to sex or emotions involving that and continues to be unlawful DURING STAY AT MINA
TAWAAFI ZIYARAH is the MOST IMPORANT DUTY repeat MOST IMPORTANT DUTY of 10th Zilhijjah. As a matter of fact WAQOOF-E-ARAFAT on 9th and TAWAAFE ZIARAH on 10th are two are the FARZ OBLIGATION of Haj. It is preferable to ground kaba on 10th but if for any reason one fails to do so can discharge this obligation before sunset on the 12th.
THE FOURTH DAY:- On the 11TH wajibats END AND THRE REMAINS SIMPLE DUTIES. One is to stay in Mina for two or three days and to perform Rami after MIDDAY at all three Jamarat. It is forbidden to spend the nights outside Mina whether in Makkah or elsewhere.
THE FIFTH DAY:– In case of one’s failure to offer sacrifice or Twaafa Ziyarah even on 10th can comply with these two rituals on the 12th. If one does not leave Mina on the 12th before sunset, he is required to perform Rami at Jamarat on the 13th also.
TAWAAF-E-WIDA:– For those living outside the boundaries of MEEQAT, it is WAJIB that they perform Tawaafe WIDA before their departure from MAKKAH.
VISIT TO MADINA:– Next to Haj the highest eminence and the greatest blessings is to visit MASJIDE NABWI, the second most Holy Mausoleum for Muslims. Presence at sacred Mausoleum and offering salat o salaam in person to Holy prophet bears so great a reward and blessing that cannot be described in words. Generally 40 times prayers or eight days’ stay is the practice but it is not mandatory.
All the time in Madina one should pray in NABWI MOSQUE offer salaam or Durood and beseech Allah that He may render the return journey easy and He may guard the pilgrim and his/her family in peace and safety at all the time.
One can visit Madina even before Haj.